WILLIAM R. DUNCAN
В докладе рассматриваются основные причины, по которым создание эффективной, динамичной системы управления портфелем проектов становится одним из наиболее значимых факторов успеха реализации основных стратегических целей высших ИТ-менеджеров организаций. В числе этих целей могут быть названы: выравнивание и рациональное распределение ресурсов организации за счет грамотной организации процессов выбора проектов в портфеле и дальнейшего их управления; возможность прогнозирования инфраструктурных потребностей компании с тем, чтобы соответствовать требованиям внешних изменений рынка, и т.д. В докладе приводятся рекомендации по борьбе с основными проблемами, сопровождающими процесс внедрения системы управления портфелем проектов, в частности проблемы, связанные с управлением рисками на уровне портфеля; с процедурами запуска новых проектов и остановки текущих; с возможностями программного обеспечения и другими "смертными грехами" управления портфелем проектов.
Recent surveys have identified three major goals that most Information Technology (IT) executives are hoping to achieve. They are:
- Ensuring that IT is providing technology and systems to support the organization's strategic goals and initiatives.
- Leveraging the use of organizational resources by doing the right projects, for the right cost, within the right timeframe.
- Anticipating future demands on infrastructure such that the organization can quickly respond to external changes such as new competition.
One effective way of supporting all three goals is to implement a Project Portfolio Management (PPM) process. PPM in the past has been a fairly static, formal process that was done once a year as part of the annual budgeting cycle. But organizations have come to realize that an effective PPM process must be dynamic, fluid, and continuous.
However, many organizations have failed in their attempts to implement a dynamic PPM process. These failures have many common causes. We call these common causes the Seven Deadly Sins of PPM:
- Trying to use fuzzy guidance to make clear decisions. Knowing that your organization wants to be the industry leader is a start, but it is not enough to guide project approval decisions. The lack of clear guidance usually means that key choices are driven as much by corporate politics as by support for the organization's strategic direction.
- Taking a deterministic approach to risk. No single mathematical index can adequately model project risk. The usual outcome of this approach is a portfolio that appears risk-balanced, but that is actually vulnerable to one or two sources of risk.
- Expecting software to solve the problem. Portfolio software is a tool that requires accurate and complete inputs. Organizations that emphasize tool selection over the generation of accurate and reliable data experience the well know problem of "garbage in, garbage out."
- Overreaching. Trying to gather complete information about every one of the organization's IT projects can make the initial PPM process more costly than the benefits.
- Treating PPM as a project. Projects are supposed to be over; PPM is an ongoing process. When PPM is treated as a project, the initial iteration may be planned and managed quite effectively, but the real benefits are lost when there is no on-going, institutional support.
- Ignoring pipeline projects. Many organization carefully catalog their active projects and create an optimized project portfolio based on an analysis of that information. Then the new portfolio begins to break down as clients and customers try to get previously unfunded projects approved.
- Refusing to actually cancel any projects. Projects may be cancelled outright, or they may be cancelled through attrition or redirection, but some number of projects must invariably be cancelled. Keeping the current portfolio intact will undercut any future attempts at improvement.
Good Project Portfolio Management is an effective way for IT to realize its goal of providing the right infrastructure and systems to enable their organization to stay competitive and profitable. In this paper, we'll present a variety of approaches to addressing these Seven Deadly Sins and thus improving the chances of a successful PPM process.